Instructing Media Literacy – Extra Credit

“Being literate in a media age requires critical thinking skills that empower us as we make decisions, whether in the classroom, the living room, the workplace, the boardroom, or the voting booth.” (NAMLE) Pupils were not as skilled in media literacy as the researchers anticipated. We need media literacy instruction for young and older people to understand they need to be wise, courteous, and sensible as influential consumers and creators on social media platforms. 


The74Media Literacy is Literacy: here’s how educators and lawmakers are working to set students up for success online. Students and adults lack the abilities needed to manage large amounts of data online. Pew Research Center found that older people found it harder to recognize facts from opinion than younger people. Older people distribute fake news on Facebook at a higher percentage than other age groups. Media literacy programs are needed to address this problem. Lawmakers are contemplating a bill that would provide grants to create a curriculum for media literacy making this noteworthy. Minnesota added “digital and information literacy to its required K-12 education standards.” (the74) Discovering the 74 to be a credible “nonprofit news website focusing on education issues in the United States. Co-founded by former CNN host and education reform activist Campbell Brown, the organization’s name refers to the 74 million children in America under 18 years of age.” (Wikipedia)

Stanford-Stanford researchers find students have trouble judging the credibility of information online. There is an assumption that young people are fluent in social media and sharp about what they find there. Studies show the opposite to be true. “We look forward to working with educators to create materials that will help young people navigate the sea of disinformation they encounter online.” (Wineburg). This article informs us the need for media literacy is urgent making it noteworthy. Detecting Stanford is a prestigious institution with extraordinary nationwide rankings that distinguish credibility and leading educational accomplishments.

NAMLEMedia Literacy Defined. “Media literacy: the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, create, and act using all forms of communication is interdisciplinary by nature.” (NAMLE) NAMLE understands the definitions and terms of media literacy, and its importance affects our environment and how we communicate in the abundance of information surrounding us. Media literacy will help us develop the expertise to understand sophisticated information affecting the way we behave making it noteworthy. The National Association for Media Literacy Education is a nationwide charitable organization with partners assigned to media literacy. “NAMLE’s official publication is the Journal for Media Literacy Education, an online, peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal; the co-editor is Renee Hobbs and a credible source.” (Wikipedia)

PBS Press ReleasePBS and KQED partner provides educators with free certification in media literacy. The media literacy certification program helps educators develop the skills to create content for specific audiences and cultivate students’ media abilities. Helping educate social media users for the 21st century making this noteworthy. “It makes it easy for educators to submit their qualifications, or take self-paced online courses to advance their knowledge and use of media in the classroom.” (PBS) PBS’ is a credible source that is consistently honored by the industry’s most coveted award competitions. It is a public broadcasting station that promotes education.


Wikipedia contributors. “Renee Hobbs.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, September 20. 2020. Web. September 27. 2020.

Wineburg, S (2016 November 22) Stanford researchers find students have trouble judging the credibility of information online. Retrieved Sept. 23,2020

Wikipedia contributors. “The 74.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, October 20. 2019. Web. September 27. 2020.

The 74 million, Media Literacy is Literacy: here’s how educators and lawmakers are working to set students up for success online. Retrieved September 24, 2020,

National Association for Media Literacy Education, Media Literacy Defined. Retrieved Sept.25,2020

PBS, PBS and KQED partner provides educators with free certification in media literacy. Retrieved Sept. 24,2020


The Grandmother Problem


First, “the grandmother problem” is not just related to baby boomers and the silent generation; it also includes young people. The 74The numbers reported are higher for the older generations. To be fair, the older generation has had to learn a lot about the internet on their own, unlike the younger generations that had classes and school lessons. Initially, when the internet was made available to everyone, media literacy was not being taught. It was like making automobiles without seat belts for many years. Many people were seriously hurt because there were no safety measures in place. Now all cars come with seatbelts, but first legislation was put in place, making it mandatory, and people were instructed to use them for their safety. 


Step one– Making the older person aware of the problem with unintentional misinformation on social media. Not in an aggressive way, but in a positive, informative way. Explain to them that misinformation can be harmful, believing an exaggerated account as factual news—it’s like The Telephone Game, where you whisper in someone’s ear a statement. By the time it goes around to five people, the story has changed. It is our responsibility to determine the credibility of the source before we share it. Show them an example of a fake news story (data doesn’t backup wearing a mask in public) and explain how back in their day, reporters like Walter Cronkite stood for getting the news right. He would argue that the story is not correct. He is cited as the “most trusted man in America.” (Wikipedia)

Daily Herald

Step twoShow older individuals the different fact-checker guides they can use to verify if the story is true or not. Use them as their tools to fact-check websites guides and news stories to discern whether what they are seeing and reading is real or fake. The fact-checkers’ mission is to expose rumors about health claims, political claims, and more on social media sites. Show older individuals how to look for other stories with the same subject to ensure it is valid. Knowing the data is accurate before it can be shared on social media. Make fact-checking a part of their online norm while reading social media posts and news stories to keep themself from misinformation (understanding wearing a mask in a pandemic helps protect them). I guarantee once they understand the process, they will run with it. Tell them Walter Cronkite would be proud of their efforts.

Step three-like anyone who has done their research shares their information, but now they can add their resources to back up the shared data. If anyone questions their post, the credible resources will speak for themselves. Older people have a lot of knowledge and experience to share. Giving them the skill set to use social media with media literacy will help them (maybe save them from COVID-19). If everyone practices this, sharing misinformation would decrease, and more reliable social media data is available. Another courtesy is to ask before sharing family photos of others on social media.

Just like the automobiles added seat belts to keep drivers safe, teaching media literacy to everyone should be a given. Offering free classes is one way to start giving people an understanding of how to determine real or fake information. ASU News Co/lab  and public broadcasters will be offering a short online seminar in media literacy in October. It’s for Gen. Z to the Silent generation. I am asking that my older family members sign up for the class. Educating everyone that media literacy will give old and young the skills to fact-check to ensure credibility before sharing data. It would reduce “the grandmother problem” of false and misleading information that is shared on social media. I am not sure it will stop the family photos post.

Curation Blog

Climate change is not stopping because of COVID-19 lockdowns. It’s just showing us the evidence of what harm CO2 emissions have created and how much of humanity’s current practices have to change. We are very far from a silver lining.


CNN-The pandemic didn’t solve climate change. This week’s disasters are proof. If you thought COVID-19 restrictions, like enforced lockdowns and social distancing, would put a lasting dent in our collective carbon footprint and save the world from warming, you were mistaken. We have reduced emissions for the wrong reasons. We can’t celebrate a drop in emissions driven by unemployment and forced behavior.

The Scientist- COVID-19 Lockdowns will have a negligible effect on climate change The fall in emissions we experienced during COVID-19 is temporary, and therefore it will do nothing to slow down climate change. If global leaders would focus on a green recovery, this moment could be a turning point at helping to avoid severe impacts from climate change.

Source NASA

The State of the Planet- COVID-19’s long-term effects on climate change for better or worse As a result of the lockdowns around the world to control COVID-19, huge decreases in global carbon emissions in April. Nonetheless, CO2 levels in the atmosphere reached their highest monthly average ever recorded in May. This is because the carbon dioxide humans have already emitted can remain in the atmosphere for a hundred years; some could last tens of thousands of years.

USA TodayFact check –The coronavirus pandemic isn’t slowing climate change. Our findings show that the annual average CO2 concentrations will increase throughout this year, even though emissions are reducing. Global emissions are smaller; they are continuing just at a slower rate. Additional CO2 is still accumulating in the atmosphere.

A. Heidt

Scientific American- Global CO2 emissions saw a record drop during pandemic lockdown. Carbon dioxide is a long-lived gas capable of staying in the atmosphere for up to a century, meaning a temporary decrease in emissions is unlikely to change its climate trajectory. Scientists have sought to reject claims that emissions reductions associated with the coronavirus are a silver lining.


My 24-hour digital media diary

Most of my morning routine is the same and begins at 7:30 am with my phone alarm, meditating and checking emails, and working on ASU modules and business responsibilities. I did not change my sources of news. Due to the fires and bad air quality in Southern California, I must confess I did not do my Yoga with Adriene. 

One unexpected change occurred in my habit by reading a CNN news article Trump banned US downloads of WeChat starting Sunday. I use WeChat to stay connected to friends and family. I wanted to check the trustworthiness of the article’s credibility by researching NPR Politics fact-checkers, and the story appears reliable. After next week I may have to change from WeChat to Facebook Messenger to stay connected. I have learned in this class to use fact-checkers to verify if the story is credible.

My evening media routine has not changed much. I am still finding recipes to cook on Google and watching the evening local news stations. I am trying to listen to both sides of the news now to balance my confirmation bias. I watch CNN news and then add on Fox news, but I admit I can’t listen for more than 10 minutes before turning away. I am taking baby steps to balance my bias before running and adjusting my media content consumption (it’s a work in progress). Thank God I can end the day with Netflix and StarTrek Deep Space Nine; it is my outlet from the strangeness of 2020, to look forward to 2420.

Analyzing the BBC’s article What is Climate Change? A really simple guide, written by Matt McGrath, May 5, 2020

The article explains to his readers a list of the problems the planet is dealing with because of human behavior. Making readers aware and educating them to understand the urgency of climate change. Providing credible data to let them make an educated decision.

  • What is Climate Change? The Earth’s average temperature is about 15C but has been much higher and lower in the past. There are natural fluctuations in the climate, but scientists say temperatures are rising faster than at many other times. Climate change encompasses global warming but refers to the broader range of changes to our world.
  • What are greenhouse gases? The most significant impact on warming is water vapor. But it remains in the atmosphere for only a few days. Carbon dioxide (CO2), however, persists for much longer. It would take hundreds of years to return to pre-industrial levels, and only so much can be soaked up by natural reservoirs such as the oceans.
The Greenhouse Effect


  • Global warming is the long-term warming of the planet. 
  • The evidence of warming predicted by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) says. The world is about one degree Celsius warmer than before widespread industrialization.
  • Will temperatures rise? The WMO says that if the current warming trend continues, temperatures could increase 3-5C by the end of this century.
  • The top emitters of (CO2) are China, the USA, and the EU. 

  • Climate change will affect us with freshwater shortages, dramatically alter our ability to produce food, and increase deaths from floods, storms, and heatwaves. 

Based on several sources, the article has resources from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the 20 warmest years of weather that have occurred in the last 22 years. The University of Berkley reported 30 years of the average land surface temperature is increasing. The Emission Database Global Atmosphere Research (EDGAR) graphed the world’s top emitters of carbon. The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned that millions’ health could be threatened by increases in malaria, a water-borne disease, and malnutrition due to climate change.


How has that affected the quality? Attaching the study links from such trustworthy sources adds credibility to the subject matter as reliable, responsible, and believable. Providing facts and research eliminates speculation. Connecting relevant links unveils the ongoing process of improving and refining hypotheses, leading to accepting certain scientific truths

Sources are credible. The World Health Organization (WHO) is a credible organization that health professionals worldwide look for science-based guidance and advice. (Evaluation of the Impact Of WHO Publications)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) consists of legitimate science or is evidence-based on credible scientific sourcing. Legitimate science follows the scientific method, is unbiased, and does not use emotional words. These sources also respect experts’ consensus in the given scientific field and strive to publish peer-reviewed science. (Media Bias) 

The Emissions Database Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends, based on publicly available statistics, for the atmospheric modeling community and policymakers. (JRC)

The World Health Organization (WHO), The University of Berkley, Emissions Database Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are all sources that have publications endorsed as trustworthy, believable, and respected in their field. Each one has a reputation for a high degree of credibility. Credibility is the power of inspiring belief. 

How do I know the sources are credible? The references found in this article display accuracy verifying the information you already know against the original data. Believing the bases has the authority ensures a trustworthy author or institution writes the source—coverage by finding other sources with similar knowledge. The scientist and researchers are accountable for their peer-reviews and published data to assure their credibility.

The reporter is credible. Matt McGrath is a reporter for the BBC and has written many science and environmental articles. Matt became BBC’s station’s science specialist in 1997. He joined the BBC World Service in 2006 as an environment reporter. He has reported on some of the significant issues in science and the environment on global warming. The BBC prides its news sources as trustworthy information; therefore, their reporters must reflect this.


The reporter failed to address What can we do now as citizens to make policies that stop climate change? In his video clip, he mentioned making changes in our behavior, like taking the bus instead of driving your car to reduce emissions. I wish he would tell his readers how everyday people can help make policy changes and do it.

Is there any evidence of persuasive tactics or bias that lacks transparency about the writer’s view? In this article, the reporter shares facts and data from credible sources to communicate, influence, and teach the readers of the crises’ seriousness and urgency. His persuasive tactic is listing the apparent concerns showing the evidence from credible organizations guiding the reader through a trustworthy information passageway. Leading the reader to knowledgable data will allow them to decide if climate change deserves their immediate attention


The letter grade for this article is A. The report provided the research data as evidence of the severity of damage climate change has on the planet. The information is given by credible sources and environmental experts in their field. After analyzing this article, I have more knowledge and understanding and see the urgency of changing my habits and sharing them with everyone I meet. Matt McGrath has persuaded me with an excellent article. I would have liked it if he ended the article with some suggestions of how ordinary people can help make the change, even if it was to write your Senator a letter that climate change concerns us. We must create policies that protect the planet.

Is there a difference between Liberals, Democrats, Republicans, and Conservatives’ views on Climate Change in the Media?


  1.   An analysis of conservatives’ views on Climate Change       A conservative is a person who is averse to change and holds to traditional values and attitudes, typically concerning politics. Conservatives are a combination of Republicans and Southern Democrats, which don’t believe human activity has brought about climate change. They think that climate change is a natural occurrence that happens over time. Conservatives want clean water, clean air, and a clean planet, just like everyone else. However, extreme environmental policies destroy jobs and damage the economy.

Don’t bother waiting for conservatives to come around on climate change.  Conservatives are open to messages emphasizing the maintenance of purity and glories of the past, but fear change, prize order, and pine for an imagined past without all the troubling present-day climate change changes. One reason could be conservatives’ tendency is to get the vast majority of their news coverage from Fox News or conservative radio stations, distrust all other news sources, and have mostly like-minded friends.

When they feel anxious or threatened, they will be more inclined to draw the care circle inward to become more conservative. Right-wing media is a machine for scaring older white people, making them more conservative. It will fight climate progress to its last breath, making the news sources not credible but agenda driven.


2.An analysis of liberal views on Climate Change

“Liberal is a person who believes that the government should be active in supporting social and political change.” (Merriam Webster) Liberals were more likely than social conservatives to describe themselves as compassionate, trusting, upbeat, and optimistic. In contrast, liberals were more responsive to forward-looking climate change messages. Liberals were more likely to feel that same level of compassion for their countrymen, people worldwide, and even animals. A liberal Manifesto in a time of Inequality and climate change  from liberalism to planet-ism. 

Liberals sometimes believe that conservatives don’t care as much about protecting the environment. Liberals will argue that Industrial growth can harm the environment. They claim an increased production of carbon dioxide causes global warming. The U.S. is a significant contributor to global warming because it produces 25% of the world’s carbon dioxide. The U.S. should enact laws to reduce that amount significantly, and if it reduces some economic growth, then so be it! 

Liberals believe in setting the price of carbon with a tax on it and observing how much to reduce emissions. Companies would invest in technology to make their factories cleaner. Homeowners may find they can save money by retrofitting their heating systems. Businesspeople may take the train instead of the plane, or maybe Skype, instead of traveling at all. Liberals tend to get their news from trusted news sources from NPR, PBS, BBC, New York Times, NBC News, CNN, ABC News, MSNBC, and CBS News. Liberals are more confident in presenting their philosophy of freedom as the better alternative to fear-based news.

3.Republican views on Climate Change by NYTimes news

Republicans were Progressives, Conservatives, and Moderates united by their faith in the power of well-maintained markets to fuel prosperity, innovation, and freedom. Republicans have opposed all substantial climate and clean energy policy for decades. The few Republicans who chose to believe in climate change are outnumbered by the opposing ones that do not believe.

The more education Republicans have, the less they tend to believe in climate change is an article in NYTimes news. About one in four Republicans with only a high school education said they worried about climate change a great deal. But among college-educated Republicans, that figure decreases sharply, to 8 percent. Even though better-educated Republicans may have more exposure to climate change science, they also have more exposure to partisan messages about it. 

Gallup Poll

When Republicans are asked if they believe global warming “will never happen,” if they think it poses “a serious threat to the way of life in your lifetime” or if it is caused by “natural changes in the environment.”Better-educated Republicans are more likely to be aware of the scientific consensus that human activity contributes to climate change but will not admit it because climate change has been a democratic or liberal issue and they do not want to oppose their parties’ side. The Republicans primary news source is Fox News which is agenda driven and not a credible news source. In the realm of right-wing opinion, climate change isn’t a scientific issue. It’s a political one.

4.Democrats views on Climate Change by MSNBC

A Democrat is an advocate of democracy, a person who believes in all people’s political or social equality, a Democratic Party member. (Dictionary .com) This year 96% of Democrats favor taking aggressive action to slow the effects of climate change. In their race for the White House, Climate Change is an issue they are talking about and creating Green New Deals to address the problem. Democrats candidates talk about climate change MSNBC 

Democrats say humans were responsible for global warming, which refers to the long-term warming of the planet. They also believe that climate scientists understand why climate change is happening and why the planet is getting warmer. Democrats believe the dangers posed by climate change and are more optimistic about our ability to turn things around. The politics of climate Pew Research

Democrats are committed to curbing the effects of climate change, protecting America’s natural resources, and ensuring the quality of our air, water, and land for current and future generations. From investing in clean energy to protecting our ecosystems, Democrats are working to address our biggest environmental challenges, paving the way to a more sustainable America. Democrats tend to get their news sources from NBC News, CNN, ABC News, MSNBC, and CBS News. These news sources tend to have more credibility and fact-finding measures in place to find the news in the story, presenting the evidence, and letting the viewer decide.

Climate change is real, and it is changing our planet, including rising sea levels; shrinking mountain glaciers; accelerating ice melt in Greenland, Antarctica, and the Arctic; and shifts in flower/plant blooming times. In the meantime, the news media has a responsibility to tell the people the scientific facts and not let the liberals, Democrats, Republicans, and conservatives make it a political issue.



Climate Change Real or Myth

I am writing a blog about climate change because this is a topic that deeply concerns me and the future of this planet. This is not an issue that we have years to discuss, we can’t sweep it under the carpet because we don’t want to deal with it right now. The planet needs us to take responsibility and make better choices. I hate moving from one home to another, I can’t imagine relocating to another planet because we ruined this one.

Over the years, I have read news stories going back and forth with the climate change issue. There is a disinformation campaign where some special interest groups whose goal is to raise doubts among the public and delay any action on human-caused climate change. Some scientists are convinced that humans are causing climate change. CBS News

So, where do we stand? Where do we get our information from to know which is real, and what should we do? Because either way, time is running out for things to stay the way that they are.


Some say that the climate has always changed and that the increase of flooding, earthquakes, melting of glaciers, sea levels rising, rise in wildfires has happened before and will happen again. Understanding these events happened but at a much slower rate (meanings over hundreds of years), not within a couple of decades.

Berkeley Earth



Others are concerned and want to begin making changes by becoming environmentally aware. How can this be done? Teaching climate literacy encourages people to change their attitudes and behaviors and help them adapt to climate change-related trends. Educating sustainable development and not relying on fossil energy. Learning a better way is beneficial, but is there enough time?

Others feel the whole subject is a conspiracy to undermine the world economy, forcing the change in which the world gathers our energy. Politics play a huge part in this matter. The massive amounts of money threaten the major corporations in first-world countries; they will have to spend to change their existing fossil fuel process to cleaner fuels.

The WBGH 2’s Beat the Press ran a story, How Fox News is helping to destroy the planet. The Democratic and Republican parties have their opinion on this climate change matter. The democratic party 89% believe human activity contributes a great deal to climate change. The Republican party believes human activity counts for climate change by 53%, and 45% believe climate change is a natural occurrence. 

As President Trump tweeted, we have our influencers and leaders who give their opinions and make bold statements about climate change.

In conclusion, we see both news stations views CBS showing both sides’ views but leaning toward human-caused and WGSB stating Fox News views that it’s a scare tactic and climate change is normal. The best way to find out the truth is to remove the money. If there is no cost involved, see what the answer would be. If we admit this is human-caused, and sustainable development was allowed, the current wealth would change hands. Making this the real fear of climate change, and that this is natural is the myth

My 24-hour Media Usage Diary Blog

When I first thought about making this 24-hour media diary, I thought I wouldn’t have very much content to log in to this diary because I do not use many digital and social media platforms. But this year 2020 has turned the world upside down and changes everything, even my amount of media I intake on a daily basis. Starting with unemployment and being an online student (total change)! I will be ranking my sources (10 most trusted, 1 least trusted).

Here is a sample of how I start my days in the pandemic in 2020. 

7:30 am– Waking up to the phone alarm and meditating for about 20 minutes (to have a clear mind before I engage in my daily task). 

Medical Xpress







8:00 am- Checking my phone for text messages, WeChat messages, California wildfires maps, and any urgent emails. It is critical to stay connected with my family members during the pandemic, located in several states across the U.S. and China. During the fire season (summer and fall), I check LA Times wildfire heat maps to ensure my area is not in a wildfire path. 


8:30 am– Exercising using Youtube videos, Yoga with Adriene. Her layout offers different types of yoga sessions for other needs or emotional feelings one is having. For example, she has a session to address lower back pain or a session for loneliness. Since the pandemic, I now have time to practice yoga. I am still using the basics and beginner sessions. I find it to be very beneficial to keep my body flexible.

9:30 am– Taking care of business, reading emails, checking accounts, paying bills, checking the calendar. This requires the usage of Google Chrome to find different websites and email services.

10:00 am -Check the ASU website and work on class modules and research articles to learn Digital Media Literacy.

Noon– I have some lunch, check my phone for Google android apps notifications and news stories.

My Midday schedule:

1:00 pm– I take the time to work on Adobe Illustrator as a hobby. I am teaching myself to draw on a digital platform. I use a lot of Youtube videos for instructions, this video teaches how to make clouds .

Clouds made on Adobe Illustrator

3:00 pm– I check my phone and text and call family members to respect others’ time zones. I read and check Facebook to reach out to friends. 

Facebook Post
Facebook Post


5:00 pm -Check Google for recipes on Pinterest for the evening dinner since the pandemic. I have been making recipes that are considered more unusual like WonTon Soup by Delish because now I have the time.

Wonton Soup
Source: Lena Abraham is the Food Editor at Delish, where she develops and styles recipes for video and photo, and also stays on top of current food trends.








6:00 pm I serve the Wonton soup and have a family meal.

My evening schedule:

7:30 pm– Watch the news feed on my phone CNN, CBSN live news for local news. (This is when my morning meditation serves me the best).It helps combat the negativity in the news. But I think it is credible and informative.

9:00- 11:00 pm -I workout then watch Netflix till I go to bed. Since COVID-19, I have been watching Star Trek Deep Space Nine, and it is interesting to see episodes that show massive homelessness (Past Tense), pandemics (The Quickening), storms from climate change (Let he who is without sin). The series was created and aired during 1993-1999. It is uncanny, I am seeing these events in 2020. Did the writers have a crystal ball?

After logging my 24-hour media usage, I realized that I currently spend 2/3 of my day (14 hours) on digital media. Balancing media intake must implement a sound mind and a healthy physical body. With that said, it’s the quality of media I chose to use(credible and positive), not the quantity. I will give the credibility of an eight to my news sources (LA Times, CBSN, CNN) and a six to Facebook.